Bailey, 23, was present at the party last Friday after which eight-time Olympic gold medalist Bolt tested positive for the coronavirus.
Earlier this week, Bailey informed the Bundesliga club that he is self-isolating after learning about Bolt's positive test.
Bailey planned to return to Germany under strict hygiene protocols on a chartered flight.
However, Leverkusen announced in a statement on Thursday that the authorities stopped him from leaving the country on short-notice and asked him to quarantine.
Leverkusen are set to begin their preseason with a coronavirus test for all players on Friday, and sources told ESPN that Bailey would have been tested twice, upon his arrival, before making contact with the rest of the squad after two negative results.
Bailey is now set to return to Germany and join the squad days before their first competitive match of the season in a German Cup clash against minor league club Eintracht Norderstedt on Sept. 13.