Brugge got on the scoresheet through a comical own goal from John Stones but the three points see City edge closer to the knockout stages.
"The manager wasn't happy at half time and you have to take his advice," Foden said. "He changed things and we were much better in the second half.
"Once we got our rhythm the chances started opening up."
The hosts took the lead over 15 minutes as Foden tapped home into an empty after a Joao Cancelo low cross.
City found their rhythm in the second half and went back in front after 54 minutes when Mahrez headed home from another Cancelo assist.
Sterling came off the bench and scored after four minutes on the pitch as he tapped home from Ilkay Gundogan's cross.
With the last kick of the game, Jesus finished off another team move with a fine curling finish.