Both teams played an open game in the Caribbean heat but neither created many goalmouth chances, particularly in a stunted first hour.
The game came alive in the last half hour as both teams pushed for a winner, but both goalkeepers made excellent saves from long-range efforts to keep the game scoreless.
The top four teams qualify automatically for Qatar and the fifth-placed side goes into an inter-regional playoff.
Brazil are still unbeaten after 10 qualifiers but their short passes in and around the box were met with a resolute Colombian defence, especially in the first half in front of a passionate crowd in Barranquilla.
After an uneventful first 45 minutes the game burst into life as the second half went on.
Brazil's Alisson was the busier of the two keepers, thwarting long-range efforts from Mateus Uribe and Juan Fernando Quintero, while at the other end, substitutes Antony and Raphinha breathed life into the Brazilian attack and forced vital saves from David Ospina.